Cochineal is made from the cochineal beetle. This are usually labelled as cochineal, carmine, or carminic acid.
The female cochineal insects are used to make the dye, as these contain the carminic acid which produces the red coloring. A large quantity of the insects are processed using high heat or steam in order to extract the dye.
Red pigment is taken from the crushed female cochineal insect. It takes a million corpses to make a kilogram of carminic acid, the more purified form of cochineal extract.